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This is an electron micrograph of a T-lymphocyte killer cell (small cell at left), attacking a large cancer tumour cell. The T- lymphocyte, a white blood cell, must make intimate contact with the tumour cell. It does so by recognizing antigens on the tumour’s surface.Following contact the tumour cell undergoes distinct structural changes; loss of microvilli (small projections), perforation & ultimately death. The tumour cell may survive, however, by budding off a number of blebs or blisters (seen here), which form a protective barrier between itself & the lymphocyte, preventing any contact. Magnification: X 2,500 Credit: DR. ANDREJS LIEPINS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
through Daily Anatomy

This is an electron micrograph of a T-lymphocyte killer cell (small cell at left), attacking a large cancer tumour cell. The T- lymphocyte, a white blood cell, must make intimate contact with the tumour cell. It does so by recognizing antigens on the tumour’s surface.

Following contact the tumour cell undergoes distinct structural changes; loss of microvilli (small projections), perforation & ultimately death. The tumour cell may survive, however, by budding off a number of blebs or blisters (seen here), which form a protective barrier between itself & the lymphocyte, preventing any contact. 

Magnification: X 2,500 
Credit: DR. ANDREJS LIEPINS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

through Daily Anatomy

mothernaturenetwork:

Origami-inspired mini-farm thrives without soil … or waterFuturistic design meets urban gardening with this curious flat-pack greenhouse kit that harnesses seaweed-extracted agar-agar gel as a growing medium.

mothernaturenetwork:

Origami-inspired mini-farm thrives without soil … or water
Futuristic design meets urban gardening with this curious flat-pack greenhouse kit that harnesses seaweed-extracted agar-agar gel as a growing medium.

Reblogged from Mother Nature Network

neuromorphogenesis:

Schizophrenia not a single disease but multiple genetically distinct disorders

About 80 percent of the risk for schizophrenia is known to be inherited, but scientists have struggled to identify specific genes for the condition. Now, in a novel approach analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia, the research team has identified distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia.

“Genes don’t operate by themselves,” said C. Robert Cloninger, MD, PhD, one of the study’s senior investigators. “They function in concert much like an orchestra, and to understand how they’re working, you have to know not just who the members of the orchestra are but how they interact.” 

Cloninger, the Wallace Renard Professor of Psychiatry and Genetics, and his colleagues matched precise DNA variations in people with and without schizophrenia to symptoms in individual patients. In all, the researchers analyzed nearly 700,000 sites within the genome where a single unit of DNA is changed, often referred to as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). They looked at SNPs in 4,200 people with schizophrenia and 3,800 healthy controls, learning how individual genetic variations interacted with each other to produce the illness. 

In some patients with hallucinations or delusions, for example, the researchers matched distinct genetic features to patients’ symptoms, demonstrating that specific genetic variations interacted to create a 95 percent certainty of schizophrenia. In another group, they found that disorganized speech and behavior were specifically associated with a set of DNA variations that carried a 100 percent risk of schizophrenia.

“What we’ve done here, after a decade of frustration in the field of psychiatric genetics, is identify the way genes interact with each other, how the ‘orchestra’ is either harmonious and leads to health, or disorganized in ways that lead to distinct classes of schizophrenia,” Cloninger said. 

Although individual genes have only weak and inconsistent associations with schizophrenia, groups of interacting gene clusters create an extremely high and consistent risk of illness, on the order of 70 to 100 percent. That makes it almost impossible for people with those genetic variations to avoid the condition. In all, the researchers identified 42 clusters of genetic variations that dramatically increased the risk of schizophrenia.

 “In the past, scientists had been looking for associations between individual genes and schizophrenia,” explained Dragan Svrakic, PhD, MD, a co-investigator and a professor of psychiatry at Washington University. “When one study would identify an association, no one else could replicate it. What was missing was the idea that these genes don’t act independently. They work in concert to disrupt the brain’s structure and function, and that results in the illness.”

Svrakic said it was only when the research team was able to organize the genetic variations and the patients’ symptoms into groups that they could see that particular clusters of DNA variations acted together to cause specific types of symptoms.

Then they divided patients according to the type and severity of their symptoms, such as different types of hallucinations or delusions, and other symptoms, such as lack of initiative, problems organizing thoughts or a lack of connection between emotions and thoughts. The results indicated that those symptom profiles describe eight qualitatively distinct disorders based on underlying genetic conditions. 

The investigators also replicated their findings in two additional DNA databases of people with schizophrenia, an indicator that identifying the gene variations that are working together is a valid avenue to explore for improving diagnosis and treatment. 

By identifying groups of genetic variations and matching them to symptoms in individual patients, it soon may be possible to target treatments to specific pathways that cause problems, according to co-investigator Igor Zwir, PhD, research associate in psychiatry at Washington University and associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Granada, Spain.

And Cloninger added it may be possible to use the same approach to better understand how genes work together to cause other common but complex disorders.

“People have been looking at genes to get a better handle on heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, and it’s been a real disappointment,” he said. “Most of the variability in the severity of disease has not been explained, but we were able to find that different sets of genetic variations were leading to distinct clinical syndromes. So I think this really could change the way people approach understanding the causes of complex diseases.”

Reblogged from Neuromorphogenesis!

libertariantimes:

California wildfire threatening 2,000 homes shows ‘explosive growth

An out-of-control wildfire that was threatening more than 2,000 homes in Northern California showed explosive growth, consuming tens of thousands of additional acres, fire officials said Thursday.

The fire east of Sacramento had burned through 111 square miles, up from 44 square miles on Wednesday when it forced additional evacuations, according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. It was only 5% contained.

Most of the threatened homes were in Pollock Pines, 60 miles east of Sacramento. Hundreds of them were under evacuation orders, but it wasn’t immediately clear exactly how many.

The Guardian

Reblogged from Libertarian Times

badass-bharat-deafmuslim-artista:

dinocology:

astrodidact:

Teenager from India invents device that can convert breath to speech

A high school student from India has invented a device that can convert a person’s breath into speech, to give millions of people around the world suffering from speech impediment a ‘voice’ for the first time.

Sixteen-year-old Arsh Shah Dilbagi has developed a new technology called ‘TALK’, which is a cheap and portable device to help people who are physically incapable of speaking express themselves. Right now, 1.4 percent of the world’s population has very limited or no speech, due to conditions such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), locked-in syndrome (LIS), Encephalopathy (SEM), Parkinson’s disease, and paralysis.

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20141509-26176.html

His name is Arsh Shah Dilbagi and he’s 16 years old. Gettin tired of sensationalized “mystery baby from a country where people are brown does a science thing!” articles. Use peoples names, don’t act so surprised when people of color are geniuses.

This is brilliant!

Reblogged from artista bharati
asapscience:

According to a study that looked at office working habits, participants with office plants had a higher attention capacity than those without. So, just another reason to fill our homes and work spaces with plant life! Wahoooo!!!
Source/more: http://bit.ly/1uHAW0r

asapscience:

According to a study that looked at office working habits, participants with office plants had a higher attention capacity than those without. So, just another reason to fill our homes and work spaces with plant life! Wahoooo!!!

Source/more: http://bit.ly/1uHAW0r

Reblogged from AsapSCIENCE

astrodidact:

Mapping Voyager 1’s Incredible 36-Year Trek Through Space

http://mashable.com/2014/03/17/voyager-1-timeline/

Reblogged from Stars Are My Muse
Florida to Louisiana Viewed From the International Space Station: NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman captured this image of Florida to Louisiana just before dawn, taken from the space station, and posted it to social media on Friday, Sept. 12. Wiseman, Commander Max Suraev and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst began their first full workweek Monday as a three-person crew aboard the station, while the three additional flight engineers who will round out the Expedition 41 crew spent the day training for next week’s launch to the orbiting complex.Image Credit: NASA
through NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration facebook page

Florida to Louisiana Viewed From the International Space Station: NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman captured this image of Florida to Louisiana just before dawn, taken from the space station, and posted it to social media on Friday, Sept. 12. Wiseman, Commander Max Suraev and Flight Engineer Alexander Gerst began their first full workweek Monday as a three-person crew aboard the station, while the three additional flight engineers who will round out the Expedition 41 crew spent the day training for next week’s launch to the orbiting complex.

Image Credit: NASA

through NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration facebook page

Tags: NASA space cool