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X-ray of a ballet dancer’s feet 
The ankle joint connects the lower leg to the foot and, in dance, allows for pointing the toe (plantar flexion) and flexing the foot during plié (dorsiflexion). The ankle also allows for inversion and eversion, producing turn-in and turn-out, respectively. The 26 bones in the foot work in concert with ligamentous support and muscular force to create three separate arches, critical for shock absorption during jumps. Structurally, the ideal foot for ballet is considered to be a flexible “square foot”, which has equal-length first and second toes.Read more: http://bit.ly/W3Zaoq

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X-ray of a ballet dancer’s feet 

The ankle joint connects the lower leg to the foot and, in dance, allows for pointing the toe (plantar flexion) and flexing the foot during plié (dorsiflexion). The ankle also allows for inversion and eversion, producing turn-in and turn-out, respectively. The 26 bones in the foot work in concert with ligamentous support and muscular force to create three separate arches, critical for shock absorption during jumps. Structurally, the ideal foot for ballet is considered to be a flexible “square foot”, which has equal-length first and second toes.

Read more: http://bit.ly/W3Zaoq
These condoms include Vivagel, a new antiviral compound that disables 99.9% of HIV, herpes, and other sexually transmitted viruses:http://bit.ly/1ne3B9V
from Science Alert

These condoms include Vivagel, a new antiviral compound that disables 99.9% of HIV, herpes, and other sexually transmitted viruses:http://bit.ly/1ne3B9V

from Science Alert

Who Were the Ancient Bog Mummies? Surprising New Clues

Ongoing research suggests at least two 2,000-year-old corpses had traveled before their deaths.

Christine Dell’Amore in Copenhagen

National Geographic

PUBLISHED JULY 18, 2014

Cast into northern European wetlands, bog bodies have long appeared as opaque to archaeologists as their dark and watery graves. But new clues are coming in the centuries-old mystery of their origins.

Over 500 Iron Age bog bodies and skeletons dating to between 800 B.C. and A.D. 200 have been discovered in Denmark alone, with more unearthed in Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. (Read “Tales From the Bog” in National Geographic magazine.)

Much of the bodies’ skin, hair, clothes, and stomach contents have been remarkably well preserved, thanks to the acidic, oxygen-poor conditions of peat bogs, which are made up of accumulated layers of dead moss.

Tollund Man, for example, found in 1950 on Denmark’s Jutland Peninsula and perhaps the most famous bog body in the world, still “has this three-day beard—you feel he will open his eyes and talk to you. It’s something that not even Tutankhamun could make you feel,” said Karin Margarita Frei, a research scientist who studies bog bodies at the National Museum of Denmark.

In Denmark, about 30 of these naturally mummified corpses are housed in museums, where scientists have worked for decades to figure out who these people were and why they died.

Because some bear horrific wounds, such as slashed throats, and were buried instead of cremated like most others in their communities, scientists have suggested the bodies had been sacrificed as criminals, slaves, or simply commoners. The Roman historian Tacitus started this idea in the first century A.D. by suggesting they were deserters and criminals. (See National Geographic’s pictures of bog bodies.)

But ongoing research is uncovering an entirely new dimension: When alive, these people of the bog may have instead been special members of their villages, which in the early Iron Age were loosely scattered across Denmark.

New chemical analyses applied to two of the Danish bog bodies,Huldremose Woman and Haraldskær Woman, show that they had traveled long distances before their deaths. What’s more, some of their clothing had been made in foreign lands and was more elaborate than previously thought.

"You sacrifice something that is meaningful and has a lot of value. So maybe people who [had] traveled had a lot of value," Frei told National Geographic at the Euroscience Open Forum in Copenhagen in June.

Supernatural Portal?

For Europeans dating as far back as the Neolithic period 6,000 years ago, bogs were both resources and possibly ominous supernatural portals, according to Ulla Mannering, an expert in ancient textiles at the National Museum of Denmark.

The bogs’ peat, which could be burned for heating homes, was valuable in tree-scarce Denmark, and an ore called bog iron was made into tools and weapons.

Among prehistoric people, “when you take things, you also offer things,” said Mannering.

This may be why the Danish villagers would deposit “gifts” of clothes, old shoes, slaughtered animals, battered weapons, and, for a period of 500 years, people into the black abyss of the bogs. (Related:"Medieval Christian Book Discovered in Ireland Bog.")

Danish Iron Age cultures left no written records, so their religious beliefs are unknown, Mannering noted.

"Very Fine Lady"

When peat harvesters began accidentally unearthing bog bodies in the mid to late 1800s, many were discovered without clothing, solidifying the view that they had been simple people, Frei said. (Watch a National Geographic Channel video about bog mummies.)

Tollund Man, for instance, was found with a belt but no clothes. “It doesn’t make sense to be naked and have a belt,” Frei pointed out.

Frei wondered, then, if some of the bog bodies’ clothing had dissolved in the bogs over the centuries. So she decided to examine Huldremose Woman, a mummy discovered in 1879 wearing a checkered skirt and scarf, both made of sheep’s wool, and two leather capes.

Using microscopes, she discovered that tiny plant fibers were stuck to the 2,300-year-old woman’s skin—remnants of ancient underwear, which later analyses revealed were likely made of flax.

Next, Frei performed a first-of-its-kind analysis of the strontium isotope contained in the flax and in the wool from the skirt and scarf.

Researchers analyzed the isotopes, or different varieties, of atoms in the strontium preserved in the flax and wool fibers. These atoms provide a chemical insight into the geology of the region where the plant and sheep lived.

The results show that the plant fibers taken from threads of the underwear grew on terrains geologically older than those of Denmark—those typical of northern Scandinavia, such as Norway or Sweden—suggesting that Huldremose Woman may have come from somewhere else, according to research published in 2009 in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

Frei also did an analysis of strontium isotopes in Huldremose Woman’s skin. Humans absorb strontium through food and water, and it’s especially prevalent in our teeth and bones—though many bog bodies are found without teeth and bones because of the acidic conditions.

read more from Nat Geo

Electric Aliens? Bacteria discovered that exist on pure energy

Published time: July 19, 2014 18:24

Microbiologists based in California have discovered bacteria that survive by eating pure electrons rather than food, bringing an entirely new method of existence to awareness and raising questions about possibilities for alien life.

The ‘electric bacteria’ – as they have been dubbed by the team that discovered them – take energy from rocks and metal by feasting directly on their electrons. The hair-like filaments the bacteria produce carry electrons between the cells and their environment. 

The biologists from the University of Southern California (USC) found that the new discovery joins more than ten other different specific type of bacteria that also feed on electricity – although none in quite the same way. 

“This is huge. What it means is that there’s a whole part of the microbial world that we don’t know about,”Kenneth Nealson of USC told New Scientist. 

Nealson explained the process by which the bacteria function. “You eat sugars that have excess electrons, and you breathe in oxygen that willingly takes them,” he said. Human cells break down the sugars in order to obtain the electrons – making the bacteria that only absorb the electrons that much more efficient. 

“That’s the way we make all our energy and it’s the same for every organism on this planet,”
 Nealson said. “Electrons must flow in order for energy to be gained.” 

Some of the bacteria even have the ability to make ‘bio-cables’ – a kind of microbial collection of wires that can conduct electricity as well as copper – renowned for its high electrical conductivity. 

Such ‘nanowires’ were first discovered in a separate study conducted by researchers at Aarhus University in Denmark. Their presence raises the possibility that one day bacteria could be used in making subsurface networks for people to use. 

“Tens of thousands of bacteria can join to form a cable that can carry electrons over several centimeters,” the New Scientist video on the subject points out. 

read more from RT

New Zealand’s hot pools are some of most extreme ecosystems on Earth, with salty, acidic water up to 90 degrees Celsius. Now University of Waikato scientists are studying the bacteria that can survive in them in the hopes of finding the key to future medicines and scientific breakthroughs: http://bit.ly/VE7dbr
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New Zealand’s hot pools are some of most extreme ecosystems on Earth, with salty, acidic water up to 90 degrees Celsius. Now University of Waikato scientists are studying the bacteria that can survive in them in the hopes of finding the key to future medicines and scientific breakthroughs: http://bit.ly/VE7dbr

source 

Rafflesia Arnoldii, or the “corpse flower”, is the largest flower on Earth. It is a leafless, stemless, rootless and non-photosynthetic parasite of vines and smells like rotting flesh: http://bit.ly/1m2c14k via Yale University.Image via Green Renaissance
text source 

Rafflesia Arnoldii, or the “corpse flower”, is the largest flower on Earth. It is a leafless, stemless, rootless and non-photosynthetic parasite of vines and smells like rotting flesh: http://bit.ly/1m2c14k via Yale University.

Image via Green Renaissance

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Good job, Sydney! The city is now offering recyclers food vouchers, city bus tickets and the chance to win harbour tickets to New Year’s Eve celebrations in exchange for plastic and metal waste:http://bit.ly/1ogExP8Image: Cash for Containers Campaign
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Good job, Sydney! The city is now offering recyclers food vouchers, city bus tickets and the chance to win harbour tickets to New Year’s Eve celebrations in exchange for plastic and metal waste:http://bit.ly/1ogExP8

Image: Cash for Containers Campaign

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Tags: Earth smart cool
We love this! Sri Lanka’s Mawbima newspaper has mixed its ink with citronella essences to protect its readers from Dengue-carrying mosquitos.Read more: http://bit.ly/1qTNZLp
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We love this! Sri Lanka’s Mawbima newspaper has mixed its ink with citronella essences to protect its readers from Dengue-carrying mosquitos.

Read more: http://bit.ly/1qTNZLp

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HUGE NEWS: 23-year old quadriplegic Ian Burkhart has regained control of his arm thanks to a microchip implanted into his brain. Let’s just take a moment to think about how amazing science is:http://bit.ly/1pkQffp






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HUGE NEWS: 23-year old quadriplegic Ian Burkhart has regained control of his arm thanks to a microchip implanted into his brain. Let’s just take a moment to think about how amazing science is:http://bit.ly/1pkQffp
In China, world’s first successful 3D-printed shoulder and collar bone implants have been performed In Xi’an, China, the capital of Shaanxi province, 3D-printed titanium prostheses were successfully implanted into three patients suffering from cancerous bone tumors. The procedures took place on March 27 and April 3 this year and the patients are currently in good condition and recovering with their new, 3D-printed bone replacements: a collar bone, a shoulder bone, and the right ilium of the pelvis.One of the three patients, a 20-year-old woman, was diagnosed a year ago with Ewing’s sarcoma in her right collar bone. Ewing’s sarcoma is a type of small, round, blue-celled tumor. The second patient also suffered from this disease in her right scapula or shoulder bone.And the third patient was diagnosed with cancer in the right ilium of the pelvis. These patients all had malignant tumors which could be life threatening if not removed. Eventually, the hospital decided that operations were needed to remove the tumors and replace the affected bones. This is where 3D printing technology comes in.A clavicle or collarbone replacement is a difficult procedure because of the complexity of the bone. With 3D-printing technology, it was possible to avoid some complications involved in the traditional procedure. Computer imaging was used to design a collarbone in the exact size and shape of the patient’s original bone. The 3D bone design was printed using laser sintering technology which fused titanium powder into the exact shape of the bone. This process produces a strong, customized titanium implant which ensures the implant fits well in the patient’s body. Infections and loosening and can be prevented in this way and lead to better health and functionality for the patient.Full article:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140603-in-china-world-first-successful-3d-printed-shoulder-and-collar-bone-implants.html
source 

In China, world’s first successful 3D-printed shoulder and collar bone implants have been performed 

In Xi’an, China, the capital of Shaanxi province, 3D-printed titanium prostheses were successfully implanted into three patients suffering from cancerous bone tumors. The procedures took place on March 27 and April 3 this year and the patients are currently in good condition and recovering with their new, 3D-printed bone replacements: a collar bone, a shoulder bone, and the right ilium of the pelvis.

One of the three patients, a 20-year-old woman, was diagnosed a year ago with Ewing’s sarcoma in her right collar bone. Ewing’s sarcoma is a type of small, round, blue-celled tumor. The second patient also suffered from this disease in her right scapula or shoulder bone.

And the third patient was diagnosed with cancer in the right ilium of the pelvis. These patients all had malignant tumors which could be life threatening if not removed. Eventually, the hospital decided that operations were needed to remove the tumors and replace the affected bones. This is where 3D printing technology comes in.

A clavicle or collarbone replacement is a difficult procedure because of the complexity of the bone. With 3D-printing technology, it was possible to avoid some complications involved in the traditional procedure. 

Computer imaging was used to design a collarbone in the exact size and shape of the patient’s original bone. The 3D bone design was printed using laser sintering technology which fused titanium powder into the exact shape of the bone. This process produces a strong, customized titanium implant which ensures the implant fits well in the patient’s body. Infections and loosening and can be prevented in this way and lead to better health and functionality for the patient.

Full article:
http://www.3ders.org/articles/20140603-in-china-world-first-successful-3d-printed-shoulder-and-collar-bone-implants.html

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