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Kilauea’s Halemaʻumaʻu CraterHalema’uma’u Crater is the center of activity at Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano. From 1820—when visiting scientists began recording their observations—until 1924, Halema’uma’u and much of Kilauea Caldera was usually filled with a lava lake. In 1924, lava drained suddenly, vaporizing groundwater deep beneath the caldera. A series of violent steam explosions followed, sculpting Halema’uma’u into its current shape. For the rest of the 20th Century, Halema’uma’u occasionally filled with lava, but quickly drained again. Most of the time the crater floor was solid. The pattern ended in March 2008, when a new pit formed along the eastern edge of Halema’uma’u; deep within the new pit crater was a lava lake. Since the pit crater formed, it has slowly expanded and is now about 160 meters (520 ft) across. The level of the lava fluctuates as magma moves from beneath the summit to the ongoing eruption in Kilauea’s East Rift Zone. This U.S. Geological Survey photograph of the lava lake was taken from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater on February 1, 2014. The level had dropped slightly from the previous day, leaving a black veneer of lava on the crater walls just above the surface of the lava and easily visible in this photograph.See the image and read more from the U.S. Geological Survey athttps://www.flickr.com/photos/usgeologicalsurvey/12792432484/See the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from space at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=81781&src=fbSee more satellite imagery of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater athttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=36090&src=fb
photo and text from NASA

Kilauea’s Halemaʻumaʻu Crater

Halema’uma’u Crater is the center of activity at Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano. From 1820—when visiting scientists began recording their observations—until 1924, Halema’uma’u and much of Kilauea Caldera was usually filled with a lava lake. In 1924, lava drained suddenly, vaporizing groundwater deep beneath the caldera. A series of violent steam explosions followed, sculpting Halema’uma’u into its current shape. For the rest of the 20th Century, Halema’uma’u occasionally filled with lava, but quickly drained again. Most of the time the crater floor was solid. The pattern ended in March 2008, when a new pit formed along the eastern edge of Halema’uma’u; deep within the new pit crater was a lava lake. Since the pit crater formed, it has slowly expanded and is now about 160 meters (520 ft) across. The level of the lava fluctuates as magma moves from beneath the summit to the ongoing eruption in Kilauea’s East Rift Zone. This U.S. Geological Survey photograph of the lava lake was taken from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater on February 1, 2014. The level had dropped slightly from the previous day, leaving a black veneer of lava on the crater walls just above the surface of the lava and easily visible in this photograph.

See the image and read more from the U.S. Geological Survey at
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usgeologicalsurvey/12792432484/

See the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from space at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=81781&src=fb

See more satellite imagery of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=36090&src=fb

photo and text from NASA

Kilauea’s Halemaʻumaʻu CraterHalema’uma’u Crater is the center of activity at Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano. From 1820—when visiting scientists began recording their observations—until 1924, Halema’uma’u and much of Kilauea Caldera was usually filled with a lava lake. In 1924, lava drained suddenly, vaporizing groundwater deep beneath the caldera. A series of violent steam explosions followed, sculpting Halema’uma’u into its current shape. For the rest of the 20th Century, Halema’uma’u occasionally filled with lava, but quickly drained again. Most of the time the crater floor was solid. The pattern ended in March 2008, when a new pit formed along the eastern edge of Halema’uma’u; deep within the new pit crater was a lava lake. Since the pit crater formed, it has slowly expanded and is now about 160 meters (520 ft) across. The level of the lava fluctuates as magma moves from beneath the summit to the ongoing eruption in Kilauea’s East Rift Zone. This U.S. Geological Survey photograph of the lava lake was taken from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater on February 1, 2014. The level had dropped slightly from the previous day, leaving a black veneer of lava on the crater walls just above the surface of the lava and easily visible in this photograph.See the image and read more from the U.S. Geological Survey athttps://www.flickr.com/photos/usgeologicalsurvey/12792432484/See the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from space at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=81781&src=fbSee more satellite imagery of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater athttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=36090&src=fb
text and photo from NASA 

Kilauea’s Halemaʻumaʻu Crater

Halema’uma’u Crater is the center of activity at Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano. From 1820—when visiting scientists began recording their observations—until 1924, Halema’uma’u and much of Kilauea Caldera was usually filled with a lava lake. In 1924, lava drained suddenly, vaporizing groundwater deep beneath the caldera. A series of violent steam explosions followed, sculpting Halema’uma’u into its current shape. For the rest of the 20th Century, Halema’uma’u occasionally filled with lava, but quickly drained again. Most of the time the crater floor was solid. The pattern ended in March 2008, when a new pit formed along the eastern edge of Halema’uma’u; deep within the new pit crater was a lava lake. Since the pit crater formed, it has slowly expanded and is now about 160 meters (520 ft) across. The level of the lava fluctuates as magma moves from beneath the summit to the ongoing eruption in Kilauea’s East Rift Zone. This U.S. Geological Survey photograph of the lava lake was taken from the rim of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater on February 1, 2014. The level had dropped slightly from the previous day, leaving a black veneer of lava on the crater walls just above the surface of the lava and easily visible in this photograph.

See the image and read more from the U.S. Geological Survey at
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usgeologicalsurvey/12792432484/

See the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater from space at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=81781&src=fb

See more satellite imagery of the Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=36090&src=fb

text and photo from NASA 

Florida LandscapesThe variety of landscapes in southeastern Florida and the northern Everglades illustrates why you might want to see the world in false color. View this region in different false color combinations and read more athttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=83256&src=fb
from NASA

Florida Landscapes

The variety of landscapes in southeastern Florida and the northern Everglades illustrates why you might want to see the world in false color. View this region in different false color combinations and read more athttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=83256&src=fb

from NASA

One of the fascinating aspects of viewing Earth at night is how well the lights show the distribution of people. In this view of Egypt, we see a population almost completely concentrated along the Nile Valley, just a small percentage of the country’s land area.
The Nile River and its delta look like a brilliant, long-stemmed flower in this astronaut photograph of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the International Space Station. The Cairo metropolitan area forms a particularly bright base of the flower. The smaller cities and towns within the Nile Delta tend to be hard to see amidst the dense agricultural vegetation during the day. However, these settled areas and the connecting roads between them become clearly visible at night. Likewise, urbanized regions and infrastructure along the Nile River becomes apparent (see also The Great Bend of Nile, Day & Night.)
Another brightly lit region is visible along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean—the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel (image right). To the east of Tel-Aviv lies Amman, Jordan. The two major water bodies that define the western and eastern coastlines of the Sinai Peninsula—the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba—are outlined by lights along their coastlines (image lower right). The city lights of Paphos, Limassol, Larnaca, and Nicosia are visible on the island of Cyprus (image top).
Scattered blue-grey clouds cover the Mediterranean Sea and the Sinai, while much of northeastern Africa is cloud-free. A thin yellow-brown band tracing the Earth’s curvature at image top is airglow, a faint band of light emission that results from the interaction of atmospheric atoms and molecules with solar radiation at approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) altitude.
from NASA

One of the fascinating aspects of viewing Earth at night is how well the lights show the distribution of people. In this view of Egypt, we see a population almost completely concentrated along the Nile Valley, just a small percentage of the country’s land area.

The Nile River and its delta look like a brilliant, long-stemmed flower in this astronaut photograph of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, as seen from the International Space Station. The Cairo metropolitan area forms a particularly bright base of the flower. The smaller cities and towns within the Nile Delta tend to be hard to see amidst the dense agricultural vegetation during the day. However, these settled areas and the connecting roads between them become clearly visible at night. Likewise, urbanized regions and infrastructure along the Nile River becomes apparent (see also The Great Bend of Nile, Day & Night.)

Another brightly lit region is visible along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean—the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel (image right). To the east of Tel-Aviv lies Amman, Jordan. The two major water bodies that define the western and eastern coastlines of the Sinai Peninsula—the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba—are outlined by lights along their coastlines (image lower right). The city lights of Paphos, Limassol, Larnaca, and Nicosia are visible on the island of Cyprus (image top).

Scattered blue-grey clouds cover the Mediterranean Sea and the Sinai, while much of northeastern Africa is cloud-free. A thin yellow-brown band tracing the Earth’s curvature at image top is airglow, a faint band of light emission that results from the interaction of atmospheric atoms and molecules with solar radiation at approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) altitude.

from NASA

Tags: NASA space Earth
Here’s What John Glenn Saw in 1962Fifty-two years ago, on February 20, 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. He also was one of the first humans to study the planet from space. Just 5 minutes and 44 seconds after launch, Glenn offered his first words about the view from his porthole: “This is Friendship 7. Can see clear back; a big cloud pattern way back across towards the Cape. Beautiful sight.” Three hours later, at the beginning of his third orbit, Glenn photographed this panoramic view of Florida from the Georgia border (right, under clouds) to just north of Cape Canaveral. His American homeland was 162 miles (260 kilometers) below. “I have the Cape in sight down there,” he noted to mission controllers. “It looks real fine from up here. I can see the whole state of Florida just laid out like on a map. Beautiful.”Read more about Glenn’s first flight athttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=77201&src=fbRead more about John Glenn at http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/glennbio.html#.UwZc_yRsjJ5Read more about astronaut photography at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/AstronautPhotography/?src=fb
through NASA

Here’s What John Glenn Saw in 1962

Fifty-two years ago, on February 20, 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth. He also was one of the first humans to study the planet from space. Just 5 minutes and 44 seconds after launch, Glenn offered his first words about the view from his porthole: “This is Friendship 7. Can see clear back; a big cloud pattern way back across towards the Cape. Beautiful sight.” Three hours later, at the beginning of his third orbit, Glenn photographed this panoramic view of Florida from the Georgia border (right, under clouds) to just north of Cape Canaveral. His American homeland was 162 miles (260 kilometers) below. “I have the Cape in sight down there,” he noted to mission controllers. “It looks real fine from up here. I can see the whole state of Florida just laid out like on a map. Beautiful.”

Read more about Glenn’s first flight at
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=77201&src=fb

Read more about John Glenn at 
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/glennbio.html#.UwZc_yRsjJ5

Read more about astronaut photography at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/AstronautPhotography/?src=fb

through NASA

Aerial image of river delta in Iceland. © Emmanuel Coupe, Greece – 2014 Sony World Photography Awards Shortlist, Professional Category, Landscape subcategory.
through Be the Change page

Aerial image of river delta in Iceland. 

© Emmanuel Coupe, Greece – 2014 Sony World Photography Awards Shortlist, Professional Category, Landscape subcategory.

through Be the Change page

Tags: Iceland Earth
Likely Underwater Eruption in the PacificKavachi is an undersea volcano on the southern edge of the Solomon Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. On January 29, 2014, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured what could be the start of a new cycle of island life and death. Look for the aquamarine water extending eastward from the submerged volcano. The color is likely from dissolved volcanic gases and lava fragments suspended in the water. Directly above the undersea peak, a bright patch is suggestive of vigorously churning water—but there is no sign that the eruption has broken the surface yet.Read more at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=83025&src=fbRead more about Kavachi from Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program at http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=255060See more volcanoes from space at http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/category.php?cat_id=12&m=01&y=2014
text and picture from NASA

Likely Underwater Eruption in the Pacific

Kavachi is an undersea volcano on the southern edge of the Solomon Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. On January 29, 2014, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured what could be the start of a new cycle of island life and death. Look for the aquamarine water extending eastward from the submerged volcano. The color is likely from dissolved volcanic gases and lava fragments suspended in the water. Directly above the undersea peak, a bright patch is suggestive of vigorously churning water—but there is no sign that the eruption has broken the surface yet.

Read more at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=83025&src=fb

Read more about Kavachi from Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program at 
http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=255060

See more volcanoes from space at 
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/category.php?cat_id=12&m=01&y=2014

text and picture from NASA

Tags: sciece earth NASA

The American Nile

The mighty Colorado, the life and soul of the West, is one of the most tapped rivers in the world. Can it be saved?
By Jonathan Waterman
For six million years

the Colorado River and its dozens of spectacular tributaries carved out the Grand Canyon and scoured the Rockies, flushing mineral-rich sediment to the sea.

These rivers weren’t always in flood, but they never ran dry. Today, however, the second largest tributary, theGila, is mostly bone dry in its lower reaches through Arizona; the Salt River—supplying Phoenix—no longer makes it to a confluence with the Gila; the Santa Cruz is seen beneath Tucson bridges only during rare floods; and the Colorado River itself, almost unbelievably, stopped running to the sea in most years after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1966. The river hasn’t flowed to the Sea of Cortez in Mexico since 1998

What happened? In a word: agriculture. A steady march of population growth and climate change has exacerbated conditions, but it all began with farming, much of it supported by taxpayers in a feverish desire to “settle the West.” After irrigation ditches and canals were hewed into the arid ground, farmers planted wheat, then hay. Those crops, along with cotton, citrus fruits, 90 percent of the nation’s winter vegetables, and almost any other plant imaginable, now consume about 70 percent of the Colorado River Basin’s water.

Our green lawns, golf courses, swimming pools, and generally thirsty cities also take a share of the dwindling water, as do reservoirs, where 15 percent of the basin’s water evaporates into thin air each year.

Although people tend to think of the Colorado as a single channel that slices through the Grand Canyon, the river system is really made up of scores of major tributaries that are collectively known as the Colorado River Basin. Running as red and warm as fish blood, or as emerald and cold as a glacial lake, its 242,000-square-mile (626,777-square-kilometer) drainage area alternates between the primeval and the altered. The basin’s drainage covers a percentage of the U.S. that’s almost identical to the percentage of Africa drained by the Nile.

The Colorado River is both servant and scenic wonder to the 36 million Americans it supplies with water. It is also one of the siltiest, most litigated over, and frequently paddled rivers in the world.

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